Assistant to the Department of Labor Economics
Ukrainian State University of Food Technologies,
Tendencies of implementation of remote work practices to the food industry
Changes in the Ukrainian socio-economic situation and its individual regions have a great impact on the labor market of the country. The market is also affected by economic globalization, increasing competition at the international level, development of information and technological infrastructure, prospects of accession to the EU. One of the recent trends on the labor market of Ukraine over the last decade has been dissemination of non-standard forms of employment.
Remote work is one of the fastest growing and well-developed forms. It is a method of organization of employee’s or individual entrepreneur’s labor activities, which allows working remotely, using modern information and communication technologies. The rapid development of this sphere is explained by many factors, including shifts in the economy structure, improvement of information technologies, increase of labor mobility, and employees professional level. The global economic crisis has increased the desire of employers to save fixed costs by way of moving employees to the remote work regime, which allows to increase their own competitiveness.
The founder of the remote work is Jack Nilles. He was the first to develop this concept (at that time it was called “telecommuting”). In 1972, he came up with the idea that it is not necessary to keep employees in the office, since modern communication tools allow to keep in touch with employees on distance. Quite soon he put this idea into practice. It was based on the communication between employees and their employer via telephony. In order to test his theory in practice, Mr. Nilles set up experiments at the University of Southern California, as a result of which he prepared a report and received funding from the US National Science Fund.
The US authorities were quite interested in developing the idea of telecommuting, as it could be a solution of transport problems and traffic jams in big cities. The new labor organization could allow these issues to be addressed, while at the same time it could provide citizens of countryside with an opportunity of employment. In 1979, Jack Nilles’ writings were examined the head of the US Special Committee on Economic Development, Frank Siff. He continued and developed the ideas of the scientist and invented the new term “flexi place” – “flexible workplace”  .
Some of the Ukrainian scientists have also devoted their researches and scientific works to the issue of remote employment, e.g. economists I. Bondar, T. Buromenko , O. Volkova, A. Kolota, N. Kutsay, E. Libanova , M. Ludany, I. Motorna, D . Salahyeva and others. The legal aspects of such work were examined by the following specialists: N. Alimova , D. Andreev , M. Belyaev , V. Vasiliev, N. Vishnevskaya, D. Vishnevsky, E. Gorbunova, V. Ignatkina , A. Lushnikov , M. Lushnikova, I. Kiselev, O. Korkin , D. Morozov, I. Pogodina, V. Soyfer , M. Shabanova.
I. Kiselev defined the term “remote work” as the kind of work activity performed in a place remote from the central office, which eliminates the possibility of communication between the employee and management [2, p. 123]. I. Borodin defined it as the process of performing of an employee’s job outside the traditional office by means of telecommunication technologies [3, p. 14]. The Macmillan Dictionary explains that a “remote” employee should be considered as a person who works at home while using a computer and communicating with the office or customers through telephone, fax or e-mail .
It is worth noting that in all over the world, the process of outflow of office employees started not so long ago. The financial crisis of 2008 had become a small impetus to this process, while global computerization trends have also influenced it.
The development of the Internet and Internet technologies has allowed some categories of employees to reduce the number of visits to the office and even to move to remote work mode completely. For example, if we consider the spread of freelance in the CIS area, the popularity of this type of employment has increased with the development of the Internet. The first remote work jobs were programmer, designer, and journalist.
Companies or individual entrepreneurs hire remote workers to perform certain individual, one-off tasks, and sometimes for constant, long-term engagement. In this case, such an employee may live in another city or even in another country.
More and more corporations and small businesses are opting for remote workers who work remotely, more than their office subordinates. Outsourcing services, in the broad sense of this word, are beginning to conquer the world. Such tendency is caused not only by more rational costs distribution by the employers. The telecommuting market is so diverse that it is possible to find a contractor that suits all parameters (price, terms, professional skills and opportunities, etc.) for just any task. The most often employed remote workers are the following:
- designers and journalists;
- photographers and artists;
- psychologists and coaches;
In addition, as studies have shown, not all professions can be converted to a remote format, for example doctors, police, firefighters, etc. Although, there are certain cases when doctors can consult their patients and teachers teach classes on distance, for example by using Skype.
In general, remote employees can be found in all economy spheres and industries. Creative studios, in the classical sense (design, programming, copywriting, management, etc.) become history, and remote workers who create teams and groups in the remote work regime take their niche. Demand for remote workers has increased by 58% over the past few years. Remote work in this case acts as an additional source of income. The development of teleworking is a rational direction of development, which leads to diversification of income, and helps independent specialists to avoid financial difficulties.
Separately, it is important to outline the prospects of remote work implementation to the food industry. First of all, at food companies, it can be effective to manage staff remotely. Such employees’ management mode would help to save time for managing employees. Moreover, some technical processes should be automated so that they can be controlled from any location – remotely. This direction also would help to reduce time consumption and enhance efficiency and quantitative performance in the food industry. In addition, another interesting direction of implementing remote work to the food industry is hiring of remote employees (scientists) to perform laboratory researches. This would help to save costs usually used for salaries paid to permanent laboratory workers at a particular food company, and attract skilled and narrowly focused scientists for each specific task.
LIST OF REFERENCES:
- Vicky Gan . The Invention of Telecommuting. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: https://www.citylab.com/life/2015/12/the-invention-of-telecommuting/418047/
- Baikov A. Telecommuting as one of the varieties of flexible employment in Latvia. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://www.balticcourse. com/rus/opinion/?doc=48651
- Borodin I. Legal status of a remote employee (in the order of formulation of the problem ) / I. Borodin // Labor law. – 2008. – № 5. – P. 13-20.
- Macmillan Dictionary . [ Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/teleworker